Table 2.

Comparison of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) Scores of Students Enrolled in Three- and Four-Year Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Programsa

VariableStudy Cohort, (3-Year PharmD Program) (n=91)Comparator Study Cohort,b (4-Year PharmD Program), (n=109)ap
Average PSS Score28.1 (7.4)26.5 (8.1)0.04
Male PSS Score26.8 (8.1)22.4 (7.7)
Female PSS Score29.1 (6.8)28.1 (7.7)
In the last month, how often have you been upset because of something that happened unexpectedly?2.3 (1.0)1.8 (0.9)< 0.001
In the last month, how often have you felt that you were unable to control the important things in your life?2.2 (1.0)1.7 (1.0)< 0.001
In the last month, how often have you felt nervous and “stressed”?3.2 (0.9)2.6 (0.9)< 0.001
In the last month, how often have you dealt successfully with day to day problems and annoyances?2.6 (0.9)2.7 (0.8)0.36
In the last month, how often have you felt that you were effectively coping with important changes that were occurring in your life?2.4 (0.9)2.4 (0.9)0.97
In the last month, how often have you felt confident about your ability to handle your personal problems?2.7 (0.9)2.7 (0.9)0.75
In the last month, how often have you felt that things were going your way?2.2 (0.8)2.3 (0.9)0.35
In the last month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all the things that you had to do?1.9 (0.9)1.9 (1.0)0.68
In the last month, how often have you been able to control irritations in your life?2.3 (0.8)2.4 (0.9)0.55
In the last month, how often have you felt that you were on top of things?2.1 (0.9)2.1 (0.8)0.67
In the last month, how often have you been angered because of things that happened that were outside of your control?2.1 (0.9)2.0 (0.9)0.19
In the last month, how often have you found yourself thinking about things that you have to accomplish?3.0 (1.0)3.3 (0.8)0.006
In the last month, how often have you been able to control the way you spend your time?2.3 (0.9)2.1 (0.9)0.009
In the last month, how often have you felt difficulties were piling up so high that you could not overcome them?2.1 (1.0)1.9 (1.1)0.18
  • a Cohen S. Laboratory for the Study of Stress, Immunity, and Disease. http://www.psy.cmu.edu:16080/~scohen/. Accessed April 1, 2011. PSS score ranges from 0 (lowest stress score) to 56 (highest stress score).

  • b Marshall LL, Allison A, Nykamp D, Lanke S. Perceived stress and quality of life among doctor of pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(6):137-146. Data have been reformatted to match the experimental data (ie, scale of 1-5 converted to 0-4).