Table 1.

Active-Learning Strategies Included in a Survey of US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy Regarding Curriculum Content

StrategyBrief Description
Audience response system / clickersUse of remote control devices by students to anonymously respond to multiple-choice questions posed by the instructor39; can be integrated into traditional lectures, often termed “active lecture”40
Discussion-based learning, including deliberative discussionUse of communication among learners (both synchronous and asynchronous) as a teaching modality; can be used with other strategies such as case studies41,42
Interactive-spaced educationUse of repetition of content at spaced intervals combined with testing of that content; developed and used heavily within the context of medical education43,44
Interactive Web-based learningUse of web-based modules to deliver content and assess student understanding in an interactive format45
Patient simulationUse of human patient simulators in a laboratory environment to teach providers to respond to a variety of physiological emergencies and situations35
POGIL/ discovery learningUse of exercises specifically designed to lead teams of students through the stages of exploring data, developing concepts based on that data, and applying the concepts37
PBL, including case-based learning)Use of cases or problem sets meant to be explored in self-managed teams of students (with a facilitator); PBL sessions precede any discussion of content by instructor37
Team-based learningUse of small student groups to facilitate discussion, case study exploration, or other aspects of content; preparation required in advance and content integrated throughout the class by the facilitator (expert)46
Traditional laboratory experiencesUse of traditional laboratory and benchtop experiences to provide hands-on learning experiences
  • Abbreviations: POGIL = process-oriented guided inquiry learning; PBL = problem-based learning.