Table 3.

Rank Ordered Perceived Impact of Different Technologies and Resources on Learning

Technology or ResourceMean (SD)aVery Beneficial N (%)Beneficial N (%)Indifferent N (%)Detrimental N (%)Very Detrimental N (%)
Course material posted on Web site4.8 (0.5)140 (79.1%)33 (18.6)2 (1.1)2 (1.1)0
In-class electronic presentations4.7 (0.6)134 (75.7)33 (18.6)8 (4.5)2 (1.1)0
Email4.5 (0.7)108 (61.0)58 (32.8)7 (4.0)4 (2.3)0
Digital audio files4.2 (0.8)80 (45.2)49 (27.7)37 (20.9)2 (1.1)0
Online testing4.0 (1.0)65 (36.7)69 (39.0)29 (16.4)9 (5.1)4 (2.3)
Digital video files4.0 (0.9)60 (33.9)44 (24.9)52 (29.4)2 (1.1)1 (0.6)
Handheld device3.6 (0.8)19 (10.7)53 (29.9)63 (35.6)2 (1.1)1 (0.6)
Course textbook3.5 (0.8)14 (7.9)53 (29.9)76 (42.9)3 (1.7)3 (1.7)
Instant messaging tools3.4 (0.7)13 (7.3)29 (16.4)77 (43.5)4 (2.3)0
Video-teleconferencing in class3.3 (0.9)21 (11.9)28 (15.8)75 (42.4)16 (9.0)3 (1.7)
Audience response systems3.3 (0.8)14 (8.0)41 (23.3)87 (49.4)9 (5.1)4 (2.3)
Threaded discussion tools3.1 (0.6)6 (3.4)14 (8.0)102 (58.3)8 (4.6)0
  • a based on a 5 point Likert scale anchored at 5 = very beneficial and 1 = very detrimental.