Table 1.

Sample Learning Activities to Incorporate Pharmacy Informatics into the Curriculum

Prescribing
 Didactic courseReview components and fields of prescriptions
Discuss legibility issues of written, verbal, and electronic prescriptions (e-Prescribing)
Discuss the rationale for structured data for e-Prescribing and computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE)
 Skills laboratory/IPPE-APPEa rotationReview clinical decision support options for prescribers
Create and send e-Prescriptions and medication orders via CPOE
Discuss technical and personnel challenges unique to e-Prescriptions/CPOE
Pharmacist Prescription Review
 Didactic courseDiscuss the stepwise process to determine prescription appropriateness
Discuss options to communicate with prescriber regarding received prescriptions
Review relationship between product availability and product selection in received prescriptions
Discuss the importance of prescription labeling as it relates to patient safety, including readability
 Skills laboratory/IPPE-APPE rotationDiscuss options for and document interventions related to prescriptions (electronically and/or on paper)
Experiment with clinical decision support options for pharmacists
Search electronic resources for evidence based medicine, clinical tools, and drug information
Compounding and Dispensing
 Didactic courseDiscuss the role, limitations, and benefits of dispensing automation for safe medication storage, preparation, and dispensing
Watch a video describing IV robotics and automated IV workflow systems on how the technology prepares drug products while increasing safety
 Skills laboratoryPrint and scan barcodes; note challenges of scanning due to label size/shape of dosage form
Observe process of loading automated dispensing machines (ADMs)
Review operational reports and metrics; identify methods to improve drug preparation/dispensing workflow
 IPPE-APPE rotationObserve differences in nurse ADM workflow
Use and discuss process of using barcode technology during inventory, drug preparation, and dispensing
 HITb vendorObserve automated medication tracking systems from receiving through patient medication administration
Review telepharmacy workflow to check a drug preparation remotely
Medication Administration
 Didactic courseCompare and contrast the benefits/limitations of paper and electronic medication administration records
 Skills laboratoryObserve role of smart infusion pumps in patient safety and the development of drug libraries
 IPPE-APPE rotationCollaborate with nursing to review the 5 Rights of medication administration using automated systems
Discuss/observe the role of auto-ID patient identification tools in ensuring the 5 Rights
 HIT vendorReview workflow allowing for IV interoperability communication between EHR and smart infusion pumps
Monitoring of Ongoing Medication Therapies
 Didactic courseDiscuss clinical documentation within the larger context of electronic health records
Write clinical surveillance rules to identify potential adverse drug reactions and adverse drug events
Discuss the rationale for structured clinical documentation as it relates to longitudinal medication monitoring
 Skills laboratoryObserve the use of electronic clinical monitoring tools within community pharmacy software systems
Discuss the various remote and mobile technologies to retrieve clinical information and medication database for us while on patient care rounds
 IPPE-APPE rotationDocument patient intervention within organization pharmacy intervention system
Discuss/observe medication monitoring technologies for use at the patient's residence
Review real-time monitoring system that provides a work queue of patient needing review and intervention
Enter a medication occurrence or adverse drug event report in organizations reporting system and determine how the reports are follow-up with
 HIT vendorConduct a telepharmacy consultation that allows for interaction with a patient from a remote location
Review ambulatory EHR patient profiles to incorporate information into an acute care EHR medication history
Overall
 Didactic courseDiscuss positive and negative workflow implications of HIT
Discuss role of HIT in pharmacy practice
Describe human factors engineering to design and optimize safety and efficiency of technology
Review security and privacy considerations for HIT
Describe technology implementation project management principles for the assessment, build, implementation, maintenance, and optimization stages
  • a IPPE-APPE: Introductory pharmacy practice experience-Advanced pharmacy practice experience

  • b HIT: Health information technology; Vendors can provide tools, demonstrations, and real-world practical experience.