Table 2.

Emerging Pharmacist Activities with Medication Use Technologies

Clinical Medication ManagementElectronic health record (EHR)• Participate in the development of the EHR to include the appropriate medication analysis and clinical decision support tools
Clinical decision support (CDS)• Develop requirements to be built into various medication use technologies to impact prescribing, prescription review, dispensing, and administration
• Participate in designing electronic work queue systems that can provide real-time lists of potential interventions based on the patient's medications, lab values, renal function, drug interaction, etc.
Computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE)• Collaborate with informatics divisions and other clinicians to develop and build CDS, electronic order sets, and other components of CPOE
Smart infusion pumps• Provide clinical data and medication safety principles to develop and optimize smart infusion pump drugs libraries based on prescribing patterns and literature
Pharmacy information management systems (PIMS)• Incorporate more clinical management principles into these systems to improve drug selection, preparation, and dispensing
Preparation and Dispensing ManagementAutomated workflow systems• To prepare for increased direct patient care roles, pharmacists will design automation workflows and quality processes for compounding and dispensing activities to be overseen by technicians
Pharmacy information management systems (PIMS)• Develop process and procedures around consistent remote order review and approval of doses using CPOE and automated workflow systems while on patient care rounds
Medication tracking systems• Develop/implement auto-identification systems to track medications from receipt, through preparation, distribution, and administration
Analytics and metrics• Consult on the distribution process data needed to audit and steer analytic processes to improve operational efficiencies