Table 3.

Theory of Planned Behavior Construct Items

Survey Items for Each ConstructPre-implementation Score, Mean (SE)aPost-implementation Score, Mean (SE)a
 Pharmacist participation in providing MTMS is an important step in moving the profession of pharmacy forward4.3 (0.1)4.3 (0.1)
Participation in MTMS will help to establish pharmacists as important members of the healthcare team4.1 (0.1)4.1 (0.1)
Pharmacy is the healthcare profession best qualified to provide MTMS to patients4.1 (0.1)4.2 (0.1)
Participation in MTMS will allow me to provide a higher level of care to patients4.2 (0.1)4.2 (0.1)
Pharmacists will be the main professional providers of MTMS3.9 (0.1)4.0 (0.1)
Subjective Norm
 Pharmacists will have some role in deciding the specific provisions of MTMS programs3.9 (0.1)4.2 (0.1)b
Patients would like to see pharmacists provide MTMS3.7 (0.1)3.9 (0.1)b
Other healthcare providers will appreciate pharmacists providing MTMS to patients3.7 (0.1)3.9 (0.1)b
Insurers will reimburse pharmacists for providing MTMS to patients3.4 (0.1)3.5 (0.1)b
Pharmacy employers will support the development of MTMS programs3.4 (0.1)3.6 (0.1)b
Perceived Behavioral Control
 I have the necessary knowledge and skills to provide MTMS to patients3.0 (0.1)3.8 (0.1)b
It will be entirely up to me whether or not to provide MTMS3.0 (0.1)3.3 (0.1)b
It will be feasible for me to provide MTMS to patients3.6 (0.1)3.7 (0.1)b
I will be able to identify and recruit patients for a MTMS program3.6 (0.1)3.8 (0.1)b
 I intend to look for a pharmacist position where I will be able to provide MTMS3.6 (0.1)3.7 (0.1)
I intend to seek further training on providing MTMS3.6 (0.1)3.6 (0.1)
Other pharmacy students or pharmacists I know intend to provide MTMS to patients3.6 (0.1)3.8 (0.1)b
If my employer does not plan to offer MTMS, I will take the initiative to get approval to offer these services at my place of employment3.3 (0.1)3.4 (0.1)
I intend to provide MTMS to patients3.7 (0.1)3.8 (0.1)
Behavioral Beliefs
 Providing MTMS is not likely to be profitable for pharmacists.2.5 (0.1)2.6 (0.1)
Pharmacists providing MTMS will be viewed as intrusive by patients2.7 (0.1)2.7 (0.1)
Pharmacists will be adequately reimbursed for providing MTMS to patients2.9 (0.1)3.2 (0.1)b
I have an opportunity to change patient behavior by providing MTMS3.9 (0.1)4.1 (0.1)b
I can help decrease health care costs by providing MTMS to my patients4.1 (0.1)4.1 (0.1)
Providing MTMS will give me the ability to improve medication outcomes for my patients4.2 (0.0)4.2 (0.1)
  • Abbreviations: MTMS = medication therapy management services; SE = standard error.

  • a Scale: 1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neutral; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree.

  • b Indicates P < 0.05 for comparisons of pre- vs. post-implementation scores.