Table 2.

Student Confidence Levels Before and After Completing a Medication Therapy Management Pharmacotherapy Laboratorya

MTM Service ComponentPre-implementation Score, Mean (SE)Post-implementation Score, Mean (SE)bc
Identifying a MTM billable service.2.2 (0.1)4.4 (0.1)
Identifying a patient that is eligible for Level I MTM Services.2.2 (0.1)4.7 (0.1)
Identifying a patient that is eligible for Level II MTM Services.2.0 (0.1)4.4 (0.1)
Gathering patient specific data necessary to bill for MTM services.2.9 (0.1)4.7 (0.1)
Performing a patient specific medication review.3.5 (0.1)4.9 (0.1)
Assessing a patient's medications for potential drug-related problems.3.6 (0.1)4.8 (0.1)
Formulating a recommendation to resolve an identified drug-related problem.3.4 (0.1)4.8 (0.1)
Establishing a care plan to achieve the goals of therapy.3.4 (0.1)4.8 (0.1)
Appropriately documenting the identified drug-related problems.3.3 (0.1)4.8 (0.1)
Appropriately documenting drug-therapy recommendations.3.4 (0.1)4.8 (0.1)
Scheduling appropriate follow-up to evaluate patient specific outcomes.3.7 (0.1)4.7 (0.1)
Communicating drug therapy recommendations to other health care providers.3.8 (0.1)4.8 (0.1)
Communicating drug therapy recommendations to a patient.4.0 (0.1)5.2 (0.1)
Determining the correct CPT code(s) to use when billing for MTM services.2.0 (0.1)3.5 (0.1)
Locating ICD-9 codes.2.9 (0.1)3.9 (0.1)
Determining the appropriate ICD-9 code(s) to use when billing for MTM services.2.6 (0.1)3.7 (0.1)
Completing the appropriate documentation necessary to bill for MTM services.2.2 (0.1)4.2 (0.1)
Submitting an electronic MTM services claim.2.0 (0.1)4.2 (0.1)
  • a Abbreviations: MTM = medication therapy management; SE = standard error; CPT = current procedural terminology; ICD = International Classification of Diseases.

  • b Confidence scale: 1 = not at all confident; 2 = not very confident; 3 = somewhat confident; 4 = confident; 5 = very confident; 6 = extremely confident; 7 = outstandingly confident).

  • c P < 0.00 for all pre- and post-implementation comparisons.