Table 1.

Summary of Factor Analysis and Corrected Item-Total Score Correlations of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Student Version (JSE-HPS) Administered to 187 Pharmacy Students

Item (sequence in scale)aRotated Factor Coefficients
Factor 1Factor 2rit
1. Empathy is a therapeutic skill without which a health care providers' success is limited. (15)0.80 b0.080.50
2. Patients value a health care provider's understanding of their feelings which is therapeutic in its own right. (10)0.72 b0.120.47
3. Health care providers' understanding of the emotional status of their patients, as well as that of their families is one important component of the health care provider – patient relationship. (16)0.64 b0.400.69
4. Patients feel better when their health care providers understand their feelings. (2)0.59 b0.210.48
5. I believe that empathy is an important factor in patients' treatment. (20)0.52 b0.180.57
6. Health care providers should try to understand what is going on in their patients' minds by paying attention to their non-verbal cues and body language. (13)0.52 b0.120.55
7. I believe that emotion has no place in the treatment of medical illness. (14)0.52 b0.40 b0.59
8. Asking patients about what is happening in their personal lives is not helpful in understanding their physical complaints. (12)0.48 b0.56 b0.59
9. Understanding body language is as important as verbal communication in health care provider-patient relationships. (4)0.43 b0.20 b0.57
10. Health care providers should try to stand in their patients' shoes when providing care to them. (9)0.40 b0.36 b0.55
11. Health care providers should try to think like their patients in order to render better care. (17)0.39 b0.110.36
12. Health care providers' understanding of their patients' feelings and the feelings of their patients' families does not influence treatment outcomes. (1)0.040.77 b0.33 b
13. Attentiveness of patients' personal experiences does not influence treatment outcomes. (8)0.160.74 b0.61 b
14. Attention to patients' emotions is not important in patient interview. (7)0.230.73 b0.58 b
15. Patients' illnesses can be cured only by targeted treatment; therefore, health care providers' emotional ties with their patients do not have a significant influence in treatment outcomes. (11)0.320.64b0.63b
16. A health care provider's sense of humor contributes to a better clinical outcome. (5)−0.030.100.25
17. Health care providers should not allow themselves to be influenced by strong personal bonds between patients and their family members. (18)0.070.100.17
18. I do not enjoy reading non-medical literature or the arts. (19)0.070.100.15
19. Because people are different, it is difficult to see things from patients' perspectives. (6)0.010.020.10c
20. It is difficult for a health care provider to view things from patients' perspectives. (3)−0.010.010.09c
Eigenvalue6.21.6
Percent of variance31%8%
  • Abbreviations: rit = corrected item-total score correlations.

  • a Items are listed by descending order of magnitude of factor coefficients within each factor. Factor 1 is considered as a construct involving “perspective taking” and factor 2 as a construct involving “compassionate care.” Numbers in parentheses represent the sequence of the items in the actual scale.

  • b Factor coefficient ≥ 0.39.

  • c Nonsignificant, all other item-total score correlations are statistically significant (P < 0.05).